First Aid


First Aid ABC

Emergency Helpbook

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11


FIRST AID

BURNS Burns & Scalding p.1 Heat stroke (sunstroke) – children p.2 Heat stroke (sunstitch) – adults p.3 Sweating due to sunburn p.4

BLEEDING Serious, large bleeding s.5 Nosebleeds s.6 Cutting wounds & scrapes s.7

BONE, LED AND MUSCLE INJURY Children with broken bones s.8 Muscle cramps s.9 Stretching s.10 Bruises s.11 Broken pelvis s.12

MEDICAL EMERGENCY Fever convulsions p.13 Diabetes s .14-15 Epileptic seizure p.16 Acute stroke treatment p.17 First aid for heart attack p.18FIRST

OTHERAID MEASURES Hypothermia in children and infants p.19 Hypothermia in adults p.20 Shock p.21 Skull injuries p.22 Eye injuries p.23

ALLERGISM REACTIONS AND POISONING

Anaphylactic shock in adults p.24 Anaphylactic shock in children p.25 Hugging wound p.26 Bed p.27 Poisoning p.28 Food poisoning p.29

DIFFERENCE, ACID Deficiency Asthma attack p.30 Choking toddlers p.31 Choking adults and children .32 Panic Attack p .33 REVIVAL

Reliving adults p.34 Reliving children p.35 Reliving young children p.36 ACCIDENT

PLACE – EMERGENCY Defibrillation p.37 Drowning p.38 Electric shock p.39 Accident scene p.40


1

Burns

Burns are caused by excessive heat and damage warm.

Both burns and scalding damage the body by removing the layer of skin that protects the body from infections.

Symptoms

• Extreme pain

• Swelling around the burned area

• Redness and blisters

First aid

• Extinguish the burning

• Relieve pain

• Minimize the risk of infection

Measures

Put the burned body part under running cold water for at least 10 minutes Cover the wound with plastic wrap placed longitudinally over the area – Do not wrap it tightly around the limb Remove all jewelry in the vicinity of the burned body part Treat for shock

Further steps

Call 112


2

heat stroke (sunstroke) – kids

heat stroke is when the body is unable to prolonged exposure to heat. This can eg. be the result of intense training in hot weather, or due to fever.

Children can develop heat stroke when they become too hot and dehydrated.

Symptoms

• Sudden headache

• Dizziness and confusion

• Blushing and hot, dry skin

• Rapid deterioration of response

• High temperature (40 ̊C or above)

Measures

Secure the child’s general condition and act calmly Place the child in a cool place and remove their outer clothing Add a fold of weight towel under the head Bath repeatedly with cold water and allow the moist skin to air dry Feel free to use a fan to bring down the temperature

Additional measures

If the child loses consciousness:

Check for an answer, check for breathing and prepare for resuscitation Call 112

If an infant or child under four years develop a temperature of 40 ° C (104 ° F) or higher, a doctor should always be consulted.


3

Heat stroke (sunstroke) – adults

Heat stroke is when the body is unable to withstand long-term exposure to heat. This may develop as a result of overwork in hot weather, or due to fever.

Older people are at greater risk of heat stroke because their bodies do not cope as well with changes in temperature.

Symptoms

• Restlessness

• Headache and dizziness

• Reddened, hot skin

• Elevated body temperature

First aid

Lower body temperature Arrange so that the sufferer can go to hospital

Actions

Place the sufferer Place a cold, wet towel or a soft sheet over the sufferer and fan the temperature drops, and then replace the wet cooling towel or bed sheet with a dry Monitor the Suffering

Additional Action

If the affected temperature rises again, repeat the cooling action.


4

Burning as a result of sunburn

Sunburn (burning) is caused by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, either directly from the sun or because the light is reflected from snow at high altitude.

Symptoms

• Redness of skin, which may be tender or itchy.

First Aid

Try to take the suffering away from the sun Relieve discomfort

Measures

Take the suffering indoors and away from the sun’s rays Give plenty and cold fluid Cool the skin with cold water Apply anesthetic ointment or aftersun cream on the burnt skin

Additional measures

If the affected person appears dizzy , has a headache or high temperature, it can be heat stroke (sunstroke).


5

Severe bleeding The

blood carries important oxygen in the body to various organs. On average, an adult has about 6 liters of blood; if they lose a liter, the amount of oxygen to the vital organs will significantly decrease.

The assessment of the severity of the bleeding depends on where the bleeding is, as well as the size and depth of the wound. If the bleeding is severe, it can be traumatic, stressful and painful.

First Aid

Stop Blood Minimize Shock Prevent Infection Avoid infection between the injured person and yourself and, if necessary, arrange for the injured person to go to hospital

Actions

Check if there is an object in the wound If there is no object, press the wound – Ask the injured person to use their own hand or use your hand, preferably over something clean, like a t-shirt or towel Raise the wound point above the injured person’s heart If there is an object in the wound, press both sides of the object to stop the blood coming out of the wound


6

Nosebleeds

Nosebleeds are usually not serious and can be easily treated

What causes them?

• Sneezing and when you cheat

• Infection

• High blood pressure

• Skull injury

• Poke nose

Measures

Let the injured person sit down, lean forward Ask them to breathe through the mouth Pinch the soft part of the nose (or if they can let them do it themselves) in ten minutes Calm

Additional measures

If bleeding does not stop after ten minutes, nip the nostrils again 2X10 minutes.

If the sufferer is bleeding profusely or if the bleeding does not stop after 30 minutes, call 112.


7

Cutting wounds and scrapes

Most cuts and scrapes can be easily treated.

Cleaning the wound

• Wash the wound gently with soap and water

• Remove any debris and dirt

• Pressure clean gauze on the wound to stop bleeding

• Cover with sterile plasters

• Inspect and remove the bandage when a scab has formed

Consult a doctor if:

You cannot clean the wound from all dirt The cut is more than 1 cm long or deep

Get help if:

bleeding continues The sufferer shows symptoms of shock


8

Children with broken bones

As children receive with their hands only when they fall, it is the hands , wrists and arms that are most often affected by leg fractures.

Symptoms

• Intense pain

• Inability to use the arm or leg

• Bruising or malformation at the breaking point

Actions – broken arm

Put the child down to support the injured arm with his other hand Put a boundary between the arm and the chest Put the injured arm in a middle ( If there is) Place a wide bandage that harness around the arm, neck and chest Take the child to hospital

Measures – broken leg

Place the child down and support the leg at the ankle and at the knee joint by hand if an ambulance is on the way. Otherwise, support the broken leg against, for example, a chair in waiting. Fix damaged leg with padding all around. Place a rolled-up blanket outside the injured body part and between the legs. Keep the child warm Call 112